Jumat, 06 April 2012

peta konsep

Basics of mind/concept mapping

Many of us have learned to outline information in our studies, as: 

I. First item

II. Second item

      1. sub item

      2. sub item

        a. sub sub item

            b. sub sub item

III. Third item

Alternatives to outlining are mind- and concept-mapping.

How do I map?
First reject the idea of an outline, or of paragraphs using sentences.

Other options for mind-mapping:

    • a pencil (you'll be erasing!) and a blank (non-lined) big piece of paper
    • a blackboard and (colored) chalk
    • "post-it" notes

Write down the most important word or short phrase
or symbol for the center.

Think about it; circle it.
Post other important concepts
and their words outside the circle


Edit this first phase
Think about the relation of outside items to the center item
Erase, edit, and/or shorten words to key ideas
Relocate important items closer to each other for better organization
If possible, use color to organize information
Link concepts with words to clarify their relationships

Continue working outwardFreely and quickly add other key words and ideas (you can always erase!)
Think weird: combine concepts to expand your
 
map or; break boundaries
Develop in directions the topic takes you--not limited by how you are doing the map
As you expand your map, tend to become more specific or detailed
Set the map aside
Later, continue development and revision
Stop and think about relationships you are developing
Expand the map over time (right up to an exam if necessary!)
This map is your personal learning documentIt combines what you knew with what you are learning
and what you may need to complete your "picture"


Note the descriptive links for the arrows
for "evapotranspiration" and "condensation"

Concept maps have their origin in the work of David Ausubel
(advanced organizers). The technique of concept mapping was developed by Joseph D Novak at Cornell. "Concept maps have their origin in the learning movement called constructivism. In particular, constructivists hold that prior knowledge is used as a framework to learn new knowledge. In essence, how we think influences how and what we learn. Concept maps identify the way we think, the way we see relationships between knowledge." Grayson H. Walker, Concept Mapping and Curriculum Design, Teaching Resource Center, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

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